Patent awarded to Indena for the oral combo of CO2 Extract of Saw Palmetto and Grape Seed Extract as Hair loss Treatment.
The use of Saw Palmetto as a potential hair loss treatment has been common knowledge for many years. Like Propecia the anecdotal reports as to its effectiveness have been mixed.
The Supercritical CO2 extract of Saw Palmetto used in this patent (and the Ultra Natural Prostate Formula) has enhanced solvating power yet leaves behind no solvent residues, producing a pharmaceutical grade extract of greater potency. This same extract was selected by the NCCAM expert committee as the product of choice for the US National Institute of Health’s major trial of saw palmetto in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
To briefly review, its mechanisms in regard to male pattern baldness are:
Inhibition of 5 alpha reductase, both types I and II
Inhibition of androgen receptor binding by DHT
Anti-inflammatory action (inflammation within the hair follicle is now accepted to be a major contributor to male pattern baldness)
According to this patent, the combination of The CO2 Extract of Saw Palmetto with Grape Seed Extract and a low dosage of assorted sulfur based and branched chain amino acids was able to increase Anagen to telogen(growth to fall out) ratio after 8 weeks , and perhaps as significantly , reduce sebum emission on the scalp, which is a reliable indicator of an antiandrogenic effect.
Here are some excerpts from the patent:
United States Patent
April 10, 2007
Oral compositions for the treatment of scalp disorders
Pharmaceutical and/or cosmetic compositions for the treatment and the prevention of scalp disorders, containing as active components extracts of Serenoa repens and of Vitis vinifera.
Inventors: Di Pierro; Francesco (Milan, IT)
Assignee: Indena S.p.A. (Milan IT)
Takahasi, T. et al., Acta Dermat-Venereologica (Nov. 1998). 78(6): 428-432. Proanthocyanidins from grape seeds promote proliferation of mouse hair follicle cells in vitro and convert hair cycle in vivo. Cited by examiner.
A method for treating a person having or at risk of developing dandruff or seborrhea, comprising orally administering to said person in need thereof an effective amount of a composition comprising: a) extract of Serenoa repens; and b) extract of Vitis vinifera in the free form and/or as phospholipid complexes.
The method of claim 1, wherein said composition is administered in combination with additional active ingredients selected from the group consisting of oligoelements, zinc, copper, iron, selenium, magnesium, amino acids, L-lysine, L-proline, L-hydroxyproline, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-methionine, L-cysteine, L-cystine, vitamins, vitamin B complex, vitamin E and vitamin C.
A method for treating a person having or at risk of developing dandruff or seborrhea, comprising orally administering to said person in need thereof, a composition comprising: a) extract of Serenoa repens in a daily intake of 40 320 mg/day; and b) extract of Vitis vinifera in the free form in a daily intake of 50 300 mg/day and/or as phospholipid complexes in a daily intake of 150 900 mg/day.
The method of claim 4, wherein said composition is administered in combination with additional active ingredients selected from the group consisting of oligoelements, zinc, copper, iron, selenium, magnesium, amino acids, L-lysine, L-proline, L-hydroxyproline, L-leucine, L isoleucine, L-methionine, L-cysteine, L-cystine, vitamins, vitamin B complex, vitamin E and vitamin C.
DescriptionMore particularly, the present invention relates to pharmaceutical and/or cosmetic oral compositions for the treatment and the prevention of disorders of the scalp, containing as active components extracts of Serenoa repens and of Vitis vinifera.
Dandruff, seborrhea and hair loss or alopecia are among the most common disorders of the scalp.
A number of studies have proved that androgenetic alopecia is a physiological process in genetically predisposed individuals, although its very high frequency, in particular in Caucasians, makes any attempt to establish the heritability mode difficult. Although such heritability is strongly autosomic, the number of the involved genes has not yet been established.
There is evidence of the relationship between androgens and development of androgenetic alopecia: for example, pattern baldness is related with reduced time in hair anagen growth phase, and androgens are known to induce shorter anagen growth phases in scalp hair follicles, which become finer and thinner. Tissue androgens, testosterone and more potent dihydrotestosterone (DHT), can reach the skin through blood circulation or can be locally produced in hair follicles and sebaceous glands by specific enzymes in the steroid cascade. The kinetic constants of a number of enzymes which mediate the formation of DHT, 5-alpha-reductase included, in hair follicles and sebaceous glands of human hair from scalps of man and women affected with androgenetic alopecia have been evaluated; furthermore, androgen receptors specifically binding DHT have been identified in sebocytes and human hair.
Recently, binding studies showed that the dermal papilla of hair follicles of balding subjects contains more androgen receptors than that of normal subjects. As a consequence of this hormone pathway, abnormal sebum secretion may occur, which in turn induces further worsening of baldness as well as overproduction of sebum and dandruff.
Two isoforms of 5-alpha-reductase are known: type 1 and type 2. Prostate contains the type 2 isoenzyme, whereas skin and cutaneous appendages (hair and sebaceous glands)-contain both type 1 and type 2. Finasteride, a type 2 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor originally used for the therapy of prostate hyperplasy, revealed active also in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia; furthermore, a relationship between baldness seriousness and benign prostate hyperplasy seriousness has been observed.
In addition to 5-alpha-reductase, also oxidative stress (pollution, atmospheric agents and the like) and poor intake of oligoelements and sulfated amino acids (such as methionine, cysteine and cystine) through diet adversely affect the hair.
The numerous pharmaceutical or cosmetic formulations for the treatment of dandruff and alopecia at present commercially available have not yet satisfactorily solved these problems.
It has now been found, and this is the object of the present invention, that pharmaceutical and/or cosmetic oral formulations containing a combination of active principles of vegetable origin induce excellent results in the treatment of scalp disorders, in particular androgenetic alopecia and dandruff, as a result of the combination of the different activities of the various components, which exert, inter alia, antiandrogenic, antiradicalic, antiaging activities.
The compositions of the invention act on the factors which contribute to the development of said scalp disorders, in particular on androgens, oxidative stress, oligoelements and lack of sulfated amino acids present in the diet.
More particularly, the present invention relates to oral pharmaceutical and/or cosmetic compositions containing:
a) extract of Serenoa repens,(Saw Palmetto)
b) standardized extract of Vitis vinifera,(Grape Seed) in the free form and/or as phospholipid complexes.
The components of the compositions of the present invention are all known and used in the pharmaceutical and/or in cosmetic fields. However, it should be noted that the single components, when used separately, exert by far lower activity than that obtained with the compositions of the present invention, in which the various components have been found to exert a synergistic effect of in the prevention and treatment of scalp disorders.
a) The extract of Serenoa repens is a vegetable remedy effective in benign prostate hyperplasy due to its antiandrogenic action. This product contains a specific mixture of fatty acids extracted from the plant by means of CO.sub.2 in supercritical conditions, as disclosed in EP 250,953, and when tested “in vitro” on prostate isolated cells, it revealed strong affinity to androgen receptors, as demonstrated by displacement with radiolabelled 3H–methyltrienolone.
b) The extract of Vitis vinifera, disclosed in GB 1,541,469, includes gallic acid, as well as catechin and epicatechin monomers, dimers, trimers, tetramers, pentamers, hexamers and heptamers in the free form or esterified as gallates. Extensive searches proved its many properties: a) strong, complete antioxidant profile which allow to remove the more reactive radicals, thereby counteracting all the phenomena related to free radicals activity; b) ability to inhibit xanthine-oxidase and to chelate Cu.sup.++ and Fe.sup.++, thus preventing the enzymatic release of free radicals into tissues.
c) Ability to inhibit collagenase, hyaluronidase, elastase and beta-glucuronidase, thus protecting blood vessels and connective tissue against the damages caused by proteolytic enzymes released following UV radiations, oxidative stress and during the development of the inflammatory response. The compositions of the present invention may optionally contain, in addition to the above stated components, further ingredients having useful or anyway complementary actions, for example oligoelements, such as zinc, copper, iron, selenium, magnesium; amino acids, such as L-lysine, L-proline, L-hydroxyproline, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-methionine, L-cysteine, L-cystine; vitamins, such as the vitamins B complex, vitamin E and vitamin C.
According to an embodiment of the invention, the compositions will be presented in the form of two capsules for the simultaneous administration, one containing the extracts of the invention and the other containing the oligoelements mentioned above.
The compositions of the present invention will be used in such dosage forms as to provide a components daily intake within the following ranges:
a) standardized extract of Serenoa repens (40 320 mg/day)
b) standardized extract of Vitis vinifera in the free form and/or as phospholipid complexes (50 300 mg/day and 150 900 mg day, respectively).
The oligoelements can be present in such amounts as to provide a daily intake of 0.1 to 100 mg.
The compositions of the invention revealed effective in the treatment of scalp disorders, with beneficial effects on trichogram, dandruff, seborrhea and baldness, and in the prevention of said disorders, ensuring healthy hair.
The results of the pharmacological tests are reported in the following:
Effect on Dandruff, Sebum Production and Hair Loss
60 subjects with dandruff (scaling of the scalp skin) were randomized in four groups. The first received with one capsule prepared according to Example 1 daily for 8 weeks. Evaluations were carried out immediately before starting the treatment, at the end of the treatment (after 8 weeks) and 4 weeks after interrupting the treatment (follow-up). The second group received placebo under the same experimental conditions. The third and the fourth groups received 25 and 80 mg of extracts of Vitis vinifera and Serenoa repens, respectively.
The results reported in Table 1 evidence that after 8 weeks of treatment the number of desquamated cells (evaluated according to Mac Ginley et al. J. Invest. Dermatol. 53,107,1969) was reduced from 85 to 18 cells/cm.sup.2. The number of desquamated cells was still significantly reduced after 4 weeks of follow-up (21 cells/cm.sup.2).
TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 MAC GINLEY COUNT (cells/cm2) Treatment Start 8 weeks 12 weeks Placebo 83 .+-. 3.7 85 .+-. 3.1 86 .+-. 3.6 Capsules of Ex. 1 85 .+-. 2.1 18 .+-. 2.4 21 .+-. 3.1 Extract of Vitis 87 .+-. 2.9 75 .+-. 3.1 80 .+-. 2.7 vinifera 25 mg Extract of Serenoa 84 .+-. 3.1 41 .+-. 4.3 63 .+-. 2.4 repens 80 mg.
The results reported in Table 2 prove that the treatment with the capsules of the invention significantly reduces the mean value of scalp sebum from 105 to 92 U.S. (U.S.=arbitrary Sebometric Units). It is particularly remarkable that the value of sebometric units is still significantly reduced (95 U.S.) even 4 weeks after the end of the treatment.
TABLE-US-00002 TABLE 2 SEBOMETRY (U.S.) Treatment Start 8 weeks 12 weeks Placebo 106 .+-. 7.3 105 .+-. 9.3 106 .+-. 7.9 Capsules of Ex. 1 104 .+-. 8.1 92 .+-. 6.4 95 .+-. 9.3 Extract of Vitis 107 .+-. 8.3 100 .+-. 6.6 103 .+-. 9.1 vinifera 25 mg Extract of Serenoa 105 .+-. 7.9 97 .+-. 7.1 99 .+-. 8.4 repens 80 mg.
The effect on hair loss was studied by trichogram evaluation, which consists in taking a sufficient number of hair (about 50) from the higher and antero-nucal frontal areas of each subject (Bosse K., Hautzart, 18, 35, 1967; Bosse K., Hautzart, 18, 218, 1967). The percentage of hair in anagen (growth), catagen (mature), or telogen (rest) phase was evaluated by microscope observation of each single hair shaft under the microscope. Any dystrophic anagen condition, namely the phase in which hair have miniaturized shaft, has also been evaluated in this study. A percentage of hair in telogen phase higher than 10 15% (considered normal) is an index of a clinical pathologic condition of hair loss. The results reported in Table 3 evidence that after 8 week treatment with the capsules of the invention, increase in hair bulbs in anagen phase, decrease in the value of dystrophic anagen hair and, as a consequence, reduction of bulbs in telogen phase were observed. These results were still visible after 4 weeks of follow-up. It should be noted that in the placebo group the clinical situation both at the end of the treatment and after the 4 weeks of follow-up was diametrically opposed.
TABLE-US-00003 TABLE 3 EFFECT ON HAIR LOSS PLACEBO CAPSULES of EX. 1 Start Anagen 82% Anagen 80% Catagen 1% Catagen 1% Telogen 17% Telogen 19% Dystrophic anagen 23% Dystrophic anagen 20% After 8 weeks Anagen 81% Anagen 82% of treatment Catagen 2% Catagen 1% Telogen 17% Telogen 17% Dystrophic anagen 22% Dystrophic anagen 16% After 12 weeks Anagen 80% Anagen 83% (4 week suspension) Catagen 1% Catagen 1% Telogen 19% Telogen 16% Dystrophic anagen 24% Dystrophic anagen 17%
Effect on Seborrheic Dermatitis
40 subjects affected with seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp were randomized in two groups. The first group received a capsule prepared according to Example 1 daily for 8 weeks. Instrumental sebometric evaluation was carried out immediately before starting treatment, at the end of treatment (after 8 weeks), and 4 weeks after suspension of treatment (follow-up). The second group received placebo under the same experimental conditions. The third and fourth groups received 25 and 80 mg of extracts of Vitis vinifera and Serenoa repens, respectively.
The results reported in Table 4 clearly show that treatment with the capsules of the invention significantly reduced scalp sebum mean value in subjects with seborrheic dermatitis, whose sebum values are above 200 U.S.(U.S.=arbitrary Sebometric Units). This value is still significantly low after 4 weeks of follow-up.
TABLE-US-00004 TABLE 4 SEBOMETRY (U.S.) Treatment Start 8 weeks 12 weeks Placebo 233 .+-. 13 210 .+-. 16 240 .+-. 15 Capsules of Ex. 1 241 .+-. 14 135 .+-. 9 150 .+-. 12 Extract of Vitis 227 .+-. 9 209 .+-. 14 220 .+-. 13 vinifera 25 mg Extract of Serenoa 231 .+-. 13 200 .+-. 16 203 .+-. 16 repens 80 mg.
An example of the composition according to the invention are reported in the following:
EXAMPLE 1 HARD GELATIN CAPSULES
TABLE-US-00005 Each 326 mg capsule contains: Extract of Serenca repens 50.0 mg Extract of Vitis vinifera extract 25.0 mg L-cysteine 30.0 mg L-histidine 30.0 mg L-methionine 30.0 mg D-calcium pantotenate 15.0 mg Zinc citrate (equivalent to 3 mg of zinc) 10.0 mg Copper citrate (equivalent to 0.8 mg of copper) 2.3 mg Beta-carotene 10% W.S. 4.3 mg (equivalent to 700 U.I. of vitamin A) Colloidal silica 30.0 mg (Aerosil 200 – DEGUSSA) Microcrystalline cellulose 30.0 mg (Avicel PH 101 – FMC) Maltodextrin 30.0 mg (Lycatab DSH – ROQUETTE) Pregelatinized starch 21.9 mg (Amido STA 1500 – COLORCON) Cross-linked sodium carboxymethylcellulose 15.0 mg (Ac-Of-Sol – FMC) Magnesium stearate 2.5 mg.
Like some other European patented treatments (such as Capsures and Hair Mass), this one can be readily replicated at a higher milligram dosage at a fraction of the cost, particularly in the United States. PhytoExtracts and particularly amino acids tend to be very costly in Europe. In our own protocol, the combination of Ultra Natural Prostate Formula, Whole Grape Extract with Resveratrol, and Root Food would provide the equivalent components at a significantly higher dosage and additional ingredients that speed hair growth rate, increase hair shaft diameter, and down-regulate androstenedione, an often neglected facet of hair loss treatment.